South Bay Pool Scarborough
South Bay Pool Scarborough; Exploring Scarborough's Lost South Bathing Pool by Doug Stuart
During the time I lived in Scarborough (1997-2000) I was continuously intrigued by the derelict South Bay Pool. Scarborough's South Bay Bathing Pool had been one of the resorts key tourist attractions, proudly displayed on many contemporary advertising posters. The pool had a powerful, haunting atmosphere. A few decades before, it had been full of happy people - now, it was a silent, dead place, falling into decay. Aged 19 and without good photographic equipment or experience, I set out to document this historic site.
I would like to thank Steven Wade for his support in writing this article. Thanks also to contributers Liz Tuckerman, Jeff Alinson, Jeremy Harding for providing photos, to former lifeguard Kenneth Blogg and visitors David Collishaw and Richard Beaumont for information, and the staff of The Yorkshire County Record Office, Northallerton for helping with my research.
These pictures were all taken before I was a professional photographer, and they are of variable quality. All pictures taken by myself are copyright to D Stuart Photography - please ask for usage. Other pictures have been sent to me by other contributers, or are from original postcards, prints or negatives in my collection. When possible I have sought permission for use, but in many cases it is impossible for me to be certain who owns the copyright for these.
You can see some videos of the pool in its hey-day here and here
Do you have pictures, momentos, memories or information about the South Bay Pool? Did you visit the pool, or work there? Are there mistakes in this article? I would be very pleased to hear from you. Please click on the contact link at the top of the page, or at the end of the article.
You can also post to my South Bay Pool Facebook page.
With dawn breaking behind me, I pose for a picture outside the changing room block after one of my night-time explorations, June 2000. (D Stuart Photography)
Open air swimming pools in Scarborough's south and north bays had been under consideration since the first years of The Twentieth Century. Outdoor sea water pools were in their infancy in Britain, but three small pools had been built at St Andrews, and were proving popular. One significant contributer to the discussions was newspaper publisher C D Leng. In 1908, he ran a story in The Sheffield Daily Telegraph advocating seaside bathing pools, and backing the case for Scarborough to have its own. Shortly afterwards, he wrote to Scarborough's town clerk supporting the construction of a bathing pool in the south bay and north bays, citing similar geological conditions to St Andrews and a lack of bathing facilities in the town. Leng included a sketch of the South Pool, positioned close to its eventual site. A few years later, the decision to build two pools was made.
The south pool was to be the first to be built, and design plans were drawn up in October 1913 by Borough engineer Harry W Smith and the work supervised by William Birch, begining in 1914. Construction was hampered by the diversion of resources caused by The First World War, and workers had to shelter behind its half finished walls during the German bombardment of December 1914. The pool opened on schedule in the summer of 1915, but at the cost of delaying the construction of some features, including the pool cafe. Contemporary letters show that as well as no cafe, the toilets were not yet functioning or key staff yet appointed for the first season. In 1916, male and female swimming instructors were appointed, and the toilets and showers came into operation. The Pool's cafe was installed around 1917. (Yorkshire County Record Office).
The pool was intended to have a dual purpose of acting as a sea defence for the coastline, and helping to boost Scarborough's already burgeoning tourist industry. At the time it was highly innovative, being the first of its kind and remaining the largest open air pool in Europe (330 ft wide) for many years afterwards. It went on to set a trend for open air sea water lidos in other coastal resorts. The North Bay Pool would ultimately follow much later, opening in 1938. (Yorkshire County Record Office).
The pool facilities included baths and hot and cold showers, first aid facilities, and Scarborough Corporation retained a staff of professional instructors to assist the swimmers. In 1930, a bathing ticket cost 6p, and towels and costumes could also be hired if needed. An on-site Laundry was provided to clean these items. ('Scarborough and District', Ward & Lock 'Red Guide' 1930)
During its lifetime, the South Bay Pool had been enormously popular, as is clear from contemporary pictures showing huge crowds, in and around the pool, and even watching from the terraces above. Spectators could listen to the band, watch live shows, or refresh themselves in the cafe. Several different diving boards were provided at different times in the pool's history, including a 32ft high diving board that was installed in 1934. That same year, the pool was substantially modernised, including the introduction of a chlorinated water cycling system, and increasing spectator seating to up to 3000 people. The entertainments included stunt diving (one man would set himself on fire before jumping into the pool) and professional diving from world champion Betty Slade, and dancing girls called the 'Aqua Belles'. The diving preliminaries for the 1948 Olympic games were held at the pool, where they attracted huge crowds. (Smith, J, 'Liquid Assets', English Heritage 2005) and 'Scarborough; The Tonic Holiday', Corporation of Scarborough Brochure, 1949)
As the pool had been designed to serve as a sea defence, it inevitably came under huge pressure during stormy seas, and severe damage resulted from the great storm of 1953. This destroyed a section of the pool's wall on the south east side. This section was initially replaced with sandbags, then the wall was rebuilt and a temporary separate wall extension was built around the damaged area (see pic 2;10). In around 1959, the last major construction work on the site was completed with the addition of a large concrete walkway all the way around the seaward side of the pool. This improved accessibility and provided additional protection.
By the 1980's, the pool's popularity was in steep decline. The pool was unheated and thus freezing cold, and competition from the heated fresh-water North Bay Pool, and affordable foreign holidays, were some of many problems it faced. The pool was reliant on large numbers of paying spectators, and the fashion for spectator swimming and related entertainments had hugely dimminished. Winter storms would cause large amounts of sand to wash over the top of the pool, resulting in the need for annual drainage and expensive and time consuming clearance. The site's relatively issolated location caused it to be a target for vandals. Further more, the pool was old and out-dated. Visitor Richard Beaumont said that by the late 1960's, 'The pool was already decaying. Each winter it was drained to patch up cracks and put on some paint, but no major work was done.' The pool ran into constant serious problems throughout the 1980's, first closing in 1981, before re-opening after a local campaign and an injection of £42,000 by Scarborough council. It was not enough, and The South Bay Pool closed down in 1989. (Smith, J, 'Liquid Assets', English Heritage 2005)
The pool became derelict. The council put up boards to try to stop windows being smashed and the site being vandalised, but they were not successful. When I happened upon the site for the first time in September 1997, the pool and its associated buildings were in a state of decay. What had been a thriving place full of laughter, was now quiet and still, with few visitors and only the sound of the sea.
The South Bay Pool Scarborough- The Pool
The original pool (1915-1934) had had shallow walls, allowing the sea water to come over the top of the wall when the tide was in. The early pool itself was six feet deep at the deep end, which was on the side beneath the water chute. In 1934, a huge boom in interest in outdoor activities and improvements in hygiene led to substantial re-development of the pool. This included raising the height of the walls to make the pool more independant from the sea, increasing the depth to 15 feet, increasing seating capacity, and chlorinating the water. As well as building an extension to the changing rooms to house the machinery, this also led to the appearance of the three distinctive fountains which were part of the water cycling system. Further changes included the introduction of the two semi circular shallow areas for children, each with its own fountain, and also the addition of a high diving board. (1934 Scarborough Holiday Brochure)
(Pic 1;0) An artist's impression of the pool complex, based on the builders model, c.1914. This picture shows a good overview of the pool's original layout, but many changes had been made to the design by the time the pool was actually built. In the middle of the picture can be seen the entrances to the men's and women's tunnels, leading from the pool into the changing rooms behind. Also seen here are two entrances in the pool wall at the left and right, these were additional tunnels connecting to the changing rooms, which were sealed off in the 1930's. On top of the changing rooms is the cafe, and above that, beach huts. Although part of the original design, the cafe and beach huts were not constructed at the same time as the pool, but followed on a few years later. The pool did not actually have the long platform sticking out from the entrance tunnels, (although a similar temporary structure was installed much later see pic 2;1) and did have a bandstand canopy over the entrance instead. This picture does not feature the water chutes or diving boards, and there are several differences with the design of the central part of the changing room block. (D Stuart Collection)
(pic 1;1) The bathing pool in a 1918 dated card. This is how the pool appeared when first opened. At the back centre can be seen the original water chute (slide) and diving platform. Makeshift fences can be seen around the crowd on the nearest side of the pool, these would soon be replaced with walls and railings. (D Stuart Collection)
(pic 1.2) The Bathing Pool, c.1926. By this time the concrete ramps and walkways approaching the pool had been put in place and a wall has been built around the landward side of the pool. A large re-enforcing column has been constructed (centre). The round wooden object nestling in the corner of the wall and column is a circular raft, one of several flotation devices in use during this period. (D Stuart Collection)
Pic 1.3. The pool in its later form, in a 1944 dated post card, showing the many new additions of the 1934 refit. By this point the pool had reached almost its full development, except for the addition of low diving boards and alterations to the high diving board (see pic 1;8), and a walkway around the sea-facing side of the pool. In this picture we can see the new high pool walls, allowing for increased spectator seating, the fountains and the new semi- circular shallow areas, and the newly added high diving board. The beach huts (with red roof) are now present and the building underneath has been extended, both of which had happened a few years before the 1934 refit. The large water chute has also been removed, and replaced with a smaller one on the near side, to the left of the flag (see 1;12). As the newly re-built pool had an extremely deep end, flotation markers were used to indicate depth in different areas (coloured pink in this picture and indicating depths of up to 15ft at the diving board end). In the bottom right hand corner, a large pile of earth can be seen heaped up against the pool's wall. This is to provide extra protection from the sea, but proved inadequate to prevent damage (see 1;17) By this time, 'South Bay' appears in the title to differentiate it from the North Bay Pool which had opened in 1938. (D Stuart Collection)
Pic 1.4. A similar view of the pool, now derelict, in 1999. Apart from the diving board, all the major pieces of the original structure still stood. The walkway and re-enforced wall which ran all the way round the seaward side of the pool can be seen on the right of the picture, with a large concrete expanse in the bottom right corner to protect against the sea. This had been constructed c.1959. (D Stuart Photography)
Pic 1;5. The pool's main gate. This is where spectators and swimmers who were not using the changing rooms, entered the pool, and went up the steps shown at the right and left, having bought tickets from an attendant who stood here. Straight in front of the entrance is the band stand. (D Stuart Photography)
Pic 1;6. A view across the pool c.1961, showing spectators coming into the pool and standing on the band stand area. In the bottom left hand corner, wearing a white cap, can be seen the pool's ticket seller, issuing tickets as people come in via the central gate. Also notable on the left hand side can be seen a floating stage. Electronic organist H Robinson Cleaver entertained the pool's visitors here through out most of the 1960's. (D Stuart Collection)
Pic 1;7. The pool's other gate on a wintry day in 1999. It faced towards the end of the men's changing room block and and can also be seen in pic 2;12. It was not generally used by the public, but by the pool's engineer and for removal of injured persons to the first aid room. (D Stuart Photography)
The Diving Boards
Pic 1.8. The original water chute and diving platform, in place between 1915 and 1934. In the 1934 refit, this water chute was removed and replaced with a slightly smaller one on the other side of the pool. The original shallow walls of the pool can be seen here. These walls were potentially dangerous because of the sheer drop into the open sea (or beach if the tide was out) on the other side, and one of the reasons for the pool's re-design. (D Stuart Collection)
Pic 1.9. The distinctive high diving board in 1937, which was painted grey, yellow and then white during various points in its history. Made of re-enforced concrete, it had been installed as part of the refit in 1934, and the pool had to be significantly deepened at this end to allow its safe use. The sign at the top reads 'Height 32ft For Experienced Divers Only'. Visitor David Collishaw said that when standing on the top of the board, 'you could feel it swaying in the wind.' (D Stuart Collection)
Pic. 1.10. The diving board in the late 1960's showing additions made c.1950. The top platform had been extended and a ladder added to access it. A new middle platform has been installed on the right hand side of the steps, and scaffolding poles have been put in to support the new platforms. These extensions were removed again during the 1970's, with the extended top platform going first. Also clearly seen here is the free standing low diving board (centre) which was mounted on the curved wall of the shallow section, and another low diving board beneath the high one. (D Stuart Collection)
Pic 1.11. The South Bay Pool in 1998, photographed from the roof of the changing rooms. The diving platform was taken down when the pool closed in 1989. At the right hand side can be seen a gap in the tiered seating, with a hand rail, which is where the diving platform once stood. In the very centre of the picture, jutting out from the semi circular shallow section, can be seen the fixing points installed c.1980 for the newer low diving board (see picture 1;15). (D Stuart Photography)
Pic 1;12 The pool c.1936. This shot shows many interesting features, including a sign hanging on the building in the background which reads 'News Chronicle Learn to Swim Campaign' This building is the newly built extension to the changing rooms, designed to house the plant operation (chlorination) machinery. At the end of the block, the windows and doors of the plant operator's office can be seen. On top of the plant building is a sheltered area with canopy for spectators.
A small clock can be seen fitted to the front of the diving board.
(D Stuart Collection)
Pic. 1;13 The same end of the pool as above, in 1997. The only part of the diving board structure that remained in the late 1990's was the small flight of steps seen here. This flight of steps can be seen in pic 1;12 above, to the left of the top of the fountain. A secondary flight of steps had once branched off to the left, leading to the main steps up to the diving board. (photo by Lizz Tuckerman- click on the picture to see her other pictures)
Pic 1;14. The new water chute. When the old water chute was taken away in the 1934 refit, a new, smaller chute was installed along the back wall of the pool. This slide was built on top of an existing platform with steps, to help people get out of the pool. (D Stuart Collection)
Pic.1.15 Shallow section c.1983. Here you can see the second, simplified low diving board which was installed around 1980. In the foreground can be seen a floating orange depth marker, indicating a nearly sheer drop of 15ft at this point. (picture courtesy Jeremy Harding)
Pic 1.16. A closer view showing the shallow section, fountain, and the small platform with fixing points for the low diving board, 1998. (D Stuart Photography)
The three fountains were installed in 1934 as part of the chlorination system. The left and right fountains underwent only minor changes during the pool's lifetime, but the middle fountain was completley re-built.
Pic 1;17. Two views of the middle fountain. At left, the original fountain with two unidentified ladies in the late 1930's. This fountain was extremely large (around ten feet tall). During the 1950's and early 60's the fountain was completely encased in a pile of rocks, before finally being replaced with a different, smaller design c1962. Presumably this encasement, followed by a re-design, implies some design or safety problem. At right is myself with the re-designed and much smaller middle fountain in 1999. (D Stuart collection and photo by J Peters)
Pic 1;18. A view across the pool in the 1950's. This view clearly shows the middle fountain encased in rocks towards the back. (D Stuart Collection)
Pic 1;19. The middle and right-hand fountain in 1999. (D Stuart Photography)
Pic 1.20. The Left-hand and middle fountains, with one of the shallow areas in the foreground. (D Stuart Photography)